Saturday, 21 January 2017

Diagnosis of type 1 diabetes

Diagnosis of type 1 diabetes

The onset of type 1 diabetes is typically during childhood or
puberty, and symptoms develop suddenly. Patients with type 1
diabetes can usually be recognized by the abrupt appearance of
polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (excessive thirst), and
polyphagia (excessive hunger), often triggered by stress or an illness. These symptoms are usually accompanied by fatigue,
weight loss, and weakness. The diagnosis is confirmed by a fasting blood glucose (FBG) greater than or equal to 126 mg/dl, commonly accompanied by ketoacidosis. [Note: A FBG of 100–125
mg/dl is categorized as an impaired FBG.] Fasting is defined as
no caloric intake for at least 8 hours. When the diagnosis of type
1 diabetes is uncertain by clinical presentation, testing for circulating islet-cell antibodies is recommended. [Note: The oral glucose tolerance test is not routinely used as a diagnostic tool for
diabetes because it is difficult to perform in practice and the
results are highly variable; however, it is used to screen pregnant
women for gestational diabetes